What are vitamins?

This basic information must know every one...
What are vitamins?
small but important

small but vital

What are vitamins? In brief - they are organic matters, which are not produced by the human body, however, play a highly significant role in the biochemical and physiological processes of our organism. It makes vitamins different from other relevant organic substances like carbohydrates, fats, and proteins which are used as structural elements and sources of energy for living forms. 

Daily consumption of carbohydrates for the average person is about 250 g, proteins- about 55 g, fats- about 75 g AND daily consumption of vitamin B12 is only 2 µg ( 1 µg is one millionth (1/1,000,000)  part of a gram) - as small as important!!!

How to avoid vitamins deficiency?
a variety of food

variety of food

The answer is as easy as pie - a variety of food. For healthy persons with normal physical activity enough to diversify his diet and eat an adequate quantity of food made of a variety of cereals, vegetables, fruits, meat, and eggs. However, a slight shortage of vitamins may have seasonal nature (actually it is connected with seasonal disappearance or the relatively high price of some products). In this case, multivitamin food supplements are advised.

What does it mean fat-soluble or water-soluble vitamins?

fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins

There are two groups of vitamins: fat-soluble and water-soluble.

Fat-soluble vitamins are soluble in oil (fat): vitamins A, D, E, K, (Coenzyme Q10). Fat-soluble vitamins can be accumulated in the body.

Water-soluble vitamins are soluble in the water: all vitamins of B group and vitamin C.   Water-soluble vitamins are hardly accumulated in the body.

Fat-soluble vitamins can be accumulated in the body. Exaggerated consumption of vitamin supplements can cause hypervitaminosis. In case we consume fat reduced food we should take into account that the natural concentration of fat-soluble vitamins is also reduced (together with the fat). However, some food manufacturers restore the natural level of fat-soluble vitamins in fat-reduced products. It must be indicated on the product packaging.
Water-soluble vitamins are hardly accumulated in the body and their excessive quantity is removed with urine. This means that the regular presence of water-soluble vitamins in our meals is necessary.

Why "always" in the "right" quantity?
always in the right quantity

always in the right amount

What do we have to know? Vitamins are not produced by the human body and must be consumed with food or supplements always in the appropriate
quantity . Why "always " in the "appropriate" quantity?

 "Always" -because water-soluble vitamins are easily excreted and there is no way to accumulate them.

 "Appropriate quantity" because the excess of fat-soluble vitamins can be accumulated and cause kind of poisoning (hypervitaminosis).
Is the consumption of vitamins the same for all people?
physical activity

physical activity

Consumption of vitamins depends on gender, age, physiological condition, the intensity of physical activity, kind of food we eat, and climate where we are living.